اعتبار المآلات في إصدار الفتاوى للأقليات الإسلامية المقيمة في البلاد التي لا تدين بالإسلام

I’tibar Maalat in the Fatwas of Muslim Minorities Who Are Living In Non-Muslim Countries

  • Nur Syahirah Mohammad Nasir Student
  • Abdul Manan Ismail Associate Prof.
Keywords: ‘Itibar ma`alat, maslahah, fiqh al-Aqaliyyat, ‘Itibar ma`alat, maslahah, fiqh al-Aqaliyyat

Abstract

يهدف هذا البحث لبيان دور اعتبار المآلات في إصدار الفتاوى للأقليات الإسلامية المقيمة في البلاد التي لا تدين بالإسلام؛ من خلال الإجابة على سؤلين رئيسين؛ هما: ما الفتاوى التي يحتاج إليها المسلمون في واقع الأقليات المسلمة؟ وكيف يؤدي اعتبار المآلات دوراً في إصدار الفتاوى للأقليات الإسلامية المقيمة في البلاد غير المسلمين؟  اتبع البحث المنهج الاستقرائي والوصفي التحليلي، وليكون هذا البحث واقعياً، قامت الباحثة بدراسة الخاصة في القضايا المتعلقة بالأقليات المسلمة، وهي: إسلام المرأة المتزوجة دون زوجها، والزواج بين المسلم والكتابية، وقد توصل البحث إلى نتيجتين، أولهما؛ حاجة الأقلية المسلمة المقيمة في البلاد التي لا تدين بالإسلام إلى فتاوى تتمكن، من خلالها، من معالجة مشاكلها وفقاً لأحكام الشريعة الإسلامية، حيث يراعي فيها مصلحة الدين ومصلحتها معاً. وثانيهما؛ عدم قدرة المفتي على تعميم أحكامه في قضايا مثل هذا الزواج؛ لأن الأحكام متفاوتة بين قضية وأخرى، لذلك، يحتاج إلى النظر في كل حالة على حدة؛ فاعتبار المآلات يرشد المفتى من خلال نتائج فتواه في علاج هذه المشكلات حتى لا يؤدي إلى حصول مفسدة.

This research aims to present the role of ‘itibar maalat in issuing fatwa of Muslim minorities. In order to answer two main questions: what are fatwa that needed by Muslim in the situation of being minority, and how itibar maalat can play a role in issuing fatwa for them, this study applies the method of deductive and content analysis. To ensure the practicality of this study, the researcher provides a case study regarding Muslim minorities’ issues: a woman becomes a Muslim without her husband and interfaith marriage between Muslim and their wife ahli kitab. This study reaches two findings: firstly, the need of Muslim minorities for the fatwas which are able to solve their problem, in line with Shariah ruling, in terms of fulfilling maslahah of religion and their maslahah. Secondly, a Mufti is not able to generalize their decision in issues such this kind of marriage because the situation is different. Thus, he needs a consideration for each situation, and itibar maalat guides him in terms of the consequences of fatwas in overcoming the problem in order to avoid mafsadah.

Author Biographies

Nur Syahirah Mohammad Nasir, Student

Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Abdul Manan Ismail, Associate Prof.

Faculty of Syariah and Law, USIM

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Published
2019-01-07
How to Cite
Mohammad Nasir, N. S., & Ismail, A. M. (2019). اعتبار المآلات في إصدار الفتاوى للأقليات الإسلامية المقيمة في البلاد التي لا تدين بالإسلام. Journal of Fatwa Management and Research, 13(1), 163-178. Retrieved from http://jfatwa.usim.edu.my/index.php/jfatwa/article/view/171
Section
Seminar Papers