Aplikasi Kaedah Fiqh “al-Darurah Tuqaddaru Bi Qadariha” Terhadap Pengambilan Bantuan Makanan oleh Gelandangan

The Application of Islamic Legal Maxim “Al-Darurah Tuqaddaru bi Qadariha” on the Intake of Food Distribution by the Homeless

  • Muhammad Ammar Harith Idris Postgraduate student
  • Mohd Anuar Ramli Senior Lecturer
Keywords: gelandangan, darurah, rukhsah, makanan halal, halalan tayyiban

Abstract

The homeless was a group of people who are marginalized in large cities, such as Kuala Lumpur. The existence of them is due to various factors such as urban poverty, family conflict, mental and social symptoms. Arising from these factors, they decided to live on the streets without appropriate residences. In confronting the issue of the homeless, various forms of assistance have been provided either by government agencies or non-governmental organizations, such as the provision of transit accommodation, food distribution and so on. However, the food distribution program that is open to all parties is seen to cause problems in term of ensuring halal food intake for the homeless who are Muslims. An element of doubt on the aspect of halalan ṭayyiban was arised due to the background differences from the parties. Furthermore, the situation of the homeless who depend heavily on help, lead them to accept all kinds of food distributed without careful examination. At some point, some of the difficulties experienced by the homeless puts them in a situation of ‘darurah’(emergency). From the aspect of Islamic law, there is a debate regarding the legal maxim "Al-darurah Tuqaddaru bi Qadariha" (Emergency eliminated in line with the rate). It is designed just to eliminate the element of darurah that exists in a situation. The rukhsah was given to eliminate the element of darurah. However, it must be taken at a rate that only to eliminate the situation of darurah. Therefore, the maxim has been applied toward the intake of food distribution by the homeless. As a result, the application of the maxim is flexible based on the situation. Homeless was given the rukhsah in a desperate situation and feared harm if they did not take the food. However, it cannot be applied when there is a wide selection of food distribution resources especially those from more authoritative and Islamic organizations. In addition, it also does not apply if the food has been described clearly as Halal or otherwise.

ABSTRAK

Golongan gelandangan merupakan satu kelompok  masyarakat marginal yang terdapat di bandar-bandar besar, misalnya di Kuala Lumpur. Kewujudan golongan ini adalah disebabkan pelbagai faktor yang menghimpit dan mendesak antaranya adalah kemiskinan bandar, konflik keluarga, gangguan mental dan gejala sosial. Bertitik tolak daripada faktor tersebut, mereka mengambil keputusan untuk tinggal di jalanan tanpa mempunyai tempat tinggal yang tetap dan sesuai. Dalam mendepani isu gelandangan, pelbagai bentuk bantuan telah diberikan kepada golongan gelandangan sama ada oleh agensi kerajaan ataupun pertubuhan bukan kerajaan, misalnya penyediaan penginapan transit, bantuan makanan dan sebagainya. Namun begitu, bantuan makanan yang bersifat terbuka ini dilihat menimbulkan permasalahan dalam pengambilan makanan halal bagi gelandangan yang beragama Islam. Perbezaan latar belakang pihak-pihak yang menghulurkan bantuan makanan dilihat mewujudkan unsur keraguan terhadap aspek halalan tayyiban pada sumber makanan tersebut. Tambahan pula, situasi gelandangan yang bergantung sepenuhnya kepada bantuan menyebabkan mereka menerima segala jenis makanan yang diagihkan tanpa pemeriksaan yang teliti. Beberapa kesulitan yang dialami oleh gelandangan ini meletakkan mereka berada dalam situasi darurat pada suatu keadaan. Dari aspek hukum Islam, terdapat satu kaedah fiqh yang membahaskan perihal darurat antaranya ialah kaedah “Al-Darurah Tuqaddaru bi Qadariha” (Darurat dihilangkan selari dengan kadarnya). Kaedah ini bertujuan menghilangkan unsur darurat yang wujud dalam sesuatu keadaan. Pemberian rukhsah berperanan dalam menghilangkan unsur darurat tersebut. Walau bagaimanapun, berasaskan piawaian pemberian rukhsah, ianya mestilah diambil pada kadar yang dapat menghilangkan darurat itu sahaja. Oleh itu, kaedah fiqh ini telah diaplikasikan ke atas permasalahan dalam pengambilan bantuan makanan oleh gelandangan. Hasilnya, aplikasi kaedah tersebut adalah bersifat fleksibel berdasarkan situasi. Gelandangan diberikan rukhsah untuk mengambil makanan yang diragui sumber penyediaanya sekiranya mereka benar-benar terdesak dan dikhuatiri mendatangkan  mudarat jika tidak mengambil makanan tersebut. Namun demikian, kaedah ini tidak boleh diaplikasikan pada beberapa situasi. Antaranya ialah apabila wujud pelbagai pilihan sumber bantuan makanan daripada pihak yang lebih berautoriti dari sudut halal seperti pertubuhan serta sukarelawan Islam. Selain itu, ia juga tidak terpakai sekiranya telah dijelaskan status makanan tersebut yang membezakan di antara halal dengan sebaliknya.

 

Kata kunci: gelandangan, darurah, rukhsah, makanan halal, halalan tayyiban

Author Biographies

Muhammad Ammar Harith Idris, Postgraduate student

Jabatan Fiqh dan Usul, Akademi Pengajian Islam, Universiti Malaya

Mohd Anuar Ramli, Senior Lecturer

Jabatan Fiqh dan Usul, Akademi Pengajian Islam, Universiti Malaya

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Published
2018-12-31
How to Cite
Idris, M., & Ramli, M. A. (2018). Aplikasi Kaedah Fiqh “al-Darurah Tuqaddaru Bi Qadariha” Terhadap Pengambilan Bantuan Makanan oleh Gelandangan. Journal of Fatwa Management and Research, 13(1), 100-112. Retrieved from http://jfatwa.usim.edu.my/index.php/jfatwa/article/view/157
Section
Seminar Papers